CBSE Syllabus for Class 12

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) is a national level educational board in India. CBSE is controlled and managed by Union Government of India. All the CBSE affiliated schools follow NCERT curriculum. It is one the most preferred educational boards in India with approximately 19, 527 schools affiliated to it.

CBSE syllabus is strictly based on NCERT guidelines. The syllabus is a list of topics to be covered in a particular grade during an academic year. All the national level entrance examinations are based on CBSE syllabus.

Fliplearn provides detailed subject-wise syllabus for CBSE Class 1 to Class 12. You must have a thorough understanding of this syllabus before you begin your preparation.

Have a look at the CBSE syllabus for class 12 below:

  1. Relations and Functions

– Relations and Functions

– Inverse Trigonometric Functions

  1. Algebra

– Matrices

– Determinants

  1. Calculus

– Continuity and Differentiability

– Applications of Derivates

– Integrals

– Applications of Integrals

– Differential Equations

  1. Vectors and Three Dimensional Geometry

– Vectors

– Three-dimensional Geometry

  1. Linear Programming
  2. Probability

The CBSE syllabus of History in Class 12 focuses on a detailed study of some themes in Ancient, Medieval and Modern Indian history. The objective is to study a set of some themes in detail and depth rather than survey the entire chronological span of Indian history.

  1. The Story of the Cities: Harappan Archaeology

– Early Urban Centres

  1. Political and Economic History

– History from the Mauryan to the Gupta Period

  1. Social Histories: Using the Mahabharata

– Issues in Social History

  1. A History of Buddhism: Sanchi Stupa

– A Brief Review of Religious Histories of Vedic Religion, Jainism, Vaisnavism, Saivism

– Focus on Buddhism

  1. Agrarian Relations: The Ain-i-Akbari

– Agrarian Relations in the 16th and 17th Centuries

– Patterns of Change over the Period

  1. The Mughal Court: Reconstructing Histories Through Chronicles

– Outline of Political History 15th-17th Centuries

– Discussion of the Mughal Court and Politics

  1. New Architecture: Hampi

– Outline of New Buildings During Vijayanagar Period

– Relationship Between Architecture and the Political System

  1. Religious Histories: The Bhakti Sufi Tradition

– Outline of Religious Developments During this Period

– Ideas and Practices of the Bhakti-Sufi Saints

  1. Medieval Society Through Travellers’ Accounts

– Outline of Social and Cultural Life

  1. Colonialism and Rural Society

– Zamindars, Peasants and Artisans in the Late 18th Century

– East India Company, Revenue Settlements and Surveys

– Changes over the Nineteenth Century

  1. Representations of 1857

– The Events of 1857-58

– How These Events were Recorded and Narrated

  1. Colonialism and Indian Towns

– Growth of Mumbai, Chennai, Hill Stations and Cantonments in the 18th and 19th Century

  1. Mahatma Gandhi Through Contemporary Eyes

– The Nationalist Movement 1918-48

– The Nature of Gandhian Politics and Leadership

  1. Partition Though Oral Sources

– The History of the 1940s

– Nationalism, Communalism and Partition

  1. The Making of the Constitution

– Independence and the New Nation State

– The Making of the Constitution

The CBSE syllabus of Geography in Class 11-12 is designed with an objective to help learners

  • familiarise themselves with the key concepts of geography
  • understand the spatial arrangement of natural as well as human features on the earth’s surface
  • understand and analyse the inter-relationship between physical and human environment and its impact
  • understand issues concerning the community such as environmental issues, socio-economic concerns, gender

The syllabus of Geography for Class 12 is mentioned below:

  1. Human Geography: Nature and Scope
  2. People

– Population of the World

– Population Change

– Age-sex Ratio

– Rural-urban Composition

– Human Development

– Migration

– Population, Environment and Development

  1. Human Activities

– Primary Activities

– Secondary Activities

– Tertiary Activities

– Quaternary Activities

  1. Transport, Communication and Trade

– Land Transport

– Water Transport

– Air Transport

– Oil and Gas Pipelines

– Satellite Communication and Cyber Space

– International Trade

  1. Human Settlements

– Settlement Types

  1. Resources and Development

– Land Resources

– Water Resources

– Mineral and Energy Resources

– Industries

– Planning in India

  1. Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems

– Environmental Pollution’

– Urban Waste Disposal

– Urbanization

– Problem of Slums

– Land Degradation

The CBSE syllabus of Political Science in Class 11-12 is designed with an objective to help learners

  • understand historical processes in which the Constitution was drafted
  • familiar themselves with the diverse visions that guided the makers of the Indian Constitution
  • identify the certain key features of the Constitution and compare these to other constitutions in the world
  • analyse the ways in which the provisions of the Constitution have worked in real life

The syllabus of Political Science for Class 12 is mentioned below:

  1. Era of One Party Dominance
  2. Nation Building and Its Problems
  3. Politics of Planned Development
  4. India’s External Relations
  5. Challenge to and Restoration of Congress System
  6. Crisis of the Constitutional Order
  7. Regional Aspirations and Conflicts
  8. Rise of New Social Movements
  9. Democratic Upsurge and Coalition Politics
  10. Recent Issues and Challenges
  11. Cold War Era in World Politics
  12. Disintegration of the ‘Second World’ and Collapse of Bipolarity
  13. US Dominance in World Politics
  14. Alternative Centres of Economic and Political Power
  15. South Asia in the Post Cold War Era
  16. International Organisations in a Unipolar World
  17. Security in Contemporary World
  18. Environment and Natural Resources in Global Politics
  19. Globalization and Its Critics

The CBSE syllabus of Economics in Class 11-12 is designed with an objective to help learners

  • Understand some basic economic concepts and develop economic reasoning
  • Realize their role in nation building
  • Equip themselves with basic tools of economics and statistics to analyse economic issues
  • Understand that there can be more than one view on any economic issue

The syllabus of Economics for Class 12 is mentioned below:

  1. Introduction to Micro Economics
  2. Consumer Behaviour and Demand

– Consumer’s Equilibrium

– Demand

  1. Producer Behaviour and Supply

– Production Function

– Supply

– Cost and Revenue

  1. Forms of Market and Price Determination

– Forms of Market

– Price Determination Under Perfect Competition

  1. National Income and Related Aggregates

– Macroeconomics

– Circular Flow of Income, Concepts of GDP, GNP, NDP, NNP, National Disposable Income, Private Income, Personal Income and Personal Disposable Income

– Measurement of National Income

  1. Determination of Income and Employment

– Aggregate Demand, Aggregate Supply and Their Components

– Propensity to Consume and Save

– Involuntary Unemployment and Full Employment

– Determination of Income and Employment: Two Sector Model

– Concept of Investment Multiplier and Its Working

– Problems of Excess and Deficient Demand

– Measures to Correct Excess and Deficient Demand

  1. Money and Banking

– Money

– Central Bank

– Commercial Banks

– Recent Significant Reforms and Issues in Indian Banking System

  1. Government Budget and the Economy

– Objectives of Government Budget

– Classification of Receipts

– Balanced Budget, Surplus Budget and Deficit Budget

– Revenue Deficit, Fiscal Deficit and Primary Deficit

– Downsizing the Role of Government

  1. Balance of Payments

– Foreign Exchange Rate

– Balance of Payments Accounts

– Recent Exchange Rate Issues

The CBSE syllabus of Sociology in Class 11-12 is designed with an objective to help learners

  • Introduce themselves to the basic concepts of sociology that would enable them to observe and interpret social life.
  • Have awareness of the complexity of social processes
  • Understand the changes in contemporary Indian society

The syllabus of Economics for Class 12 is mentioned below:

  1. Structure of Indian Society

– Introducing Indian Society

– Demographic Structure

– Rural-Urban Linkages and Divisions

  1. Social Institutions: Continuity and Change

– Family and Kinship

– Caste System

– Tribal Society

– Market as a Social Institution

  1. Social Inequality and Exclusion

– Class Prejudice, Scheduled Castes and Other Backward Classes

– Marginalisation of Tribal Communities

– Struggle for Women’s Equality

– Protection of Religious Minorities

– Caring for the Differently Abled

  1. The Challenges of Unity in Diversity

– Problems of Communalism, Regionalism, Casteism and Patriarchy

– Role of the State in a Plural Society

  1. Process of Social Change in India

– Process of Structural Change

– Process of Cultural Change

– Social Reform Movements and Laws

  1. Social Change and the Polity

– Constitution as an Instrument of Social Change

– Parties, Pressure Groups and Democratic Politics

– Panchayati Raj and the Challenges of Social Transformation

  1. Social Change and the Economy

– Land Reforms, the Green Revolution and Agrarian Society

– From Planned Industrialisation to Liberalisation

– Changes in the Class Structure

  1. New Arenas of Social Change

– Media and Social Change

– Globalisation and Social Change

  1. Social Movements

– Class Based Movements

– Caste-Based Movements

– Women’s Movements in Independent India

– Tribal Movements

– Environmental Movements

The CBSE syllabus of Psychology in Class 11-12 is designed with an objective to help learners

  • develop appreciation about human behaviour
  • develop an appreciation of multidisciplinary nature of psychological knowledge and its applications in various aspects of life
  • become perceptive, socially aware and self-reflective

The syllabus of Psychology for Class 12 is mentioned below:

  1. Variations in Psychological Attributes

– Individual Differences in Human Functioning

– Assessment of Psychological Attributes

– Intelligence: Individual Differences in Intelligence

– Theories of Intelligence

– Culture and Intelligence

– Special Abilities

– Creativity

– Emotional Intelligence

  1. Self and Personality

– Culture and Self

– Concept of Personality

– Major Approaches

– Assessment of Personality

  1. Meeting Life Challenges

– Nature, Types and Sources of Stress

– Effects on Psychological Functioning and Health

– Coping with Stress

– Promoting Positive Health and Well-being

  1. Psychological Disorders

– Concepts of Abnormality and Psychological Disorders

– Classification of Disorders

– Factors Underlying Abnormal Behaviour

– Major Psychological Disorders

  1. Therapeutic Approaches

– Nature and Process of Therapy

– Types of Therapies

– Alternative Therapies

– Rehabilitation of Mentally Ill

  1. Attitude and Social Cognition

– Explaining Social Behaviour

– Social Cognition

– Schemas and Stereotypes

– Nature and Components of Attitudes

– Attitude Formation and Change

– Behaviour in the Presence of Others

– Pro-social Behaviour

– Prejudice and Discrimination

– Strategies for Handling Prejudice

  1. Social Influences and Group Processes

– Conformity, Obedience, and Compliance

– Cooperation and Competition

– Nature and Formation of Groups

– Types of Groups

– Social Identity

– Influence of Group on Individual Behaviour

– Inter-group Conflicts

– Conflict Resolution Strategies

  1. Psychology and Life

– Human-environment Relationship

– Environmental Effects on Human Behaviour

– Promoting Pro-environmental Behaviour

– Psychology and Social Concerns

  1. Developing Psychological Skills

– Effective Psychological Skills

The CBSE syllabus of Business Studies in Class 11-12 is designed with an objective to help learners

  • understand the processes of business and its environment
  • acquaint themselves with the dynamic nature and inter-dependent aspects of business
  • develop an interest in the practice of business trade and industry
  • familiarise themselves with theoretical foundations of organising managing and handling operations of a business firm
  • appreciate the economic and social significance of business activity
  • acquaint themselves with the practice of managing the operations and resources of business
  • function more effectively and responsibly as consumers, employers and citizens
  • make the transition from school to the world of work

The syllabus of Business Studies for Class 12 is mentioned below:

  1. Nature and Significance of Management

– Management – Concept, Nature, Objectives, Importance

– Levels of Management

– Management Functions

– Coordination

  1. Principles of Management

– Meaning, Nature and Significance

– Fayol’s Principles of Management

– Taylor’s Scientific Management

  1. Business Environment

– Meaning and Importance

– Dimensions of Business Environment

– Economic Environment in India

– Impact of Government Policy Changes on Business

  1. Planning

– Meaning, Features, Importance, Limitations

– Planning Process

– Types of Plans

  1. Organising

– Meaning and Importance

– Steps in the Process of Organising

– Structure of Organisation

– Formal and informal organization

– Delegation

– Decentralization

– Difference Between Delegation and Decentralisation

  1. Staffing

– Meaning, Need and Importance

– Staffing as a Part of Human Resources Management

– Steps in Staffing Process

– Recruitment

– Selection

– Training and Development

  1. Directing

– Meaning, Importance and Principles

– Elements of Direction

– Supervision

– Financial and Non Financial Incentives

– Leadership

– Communication

  1. Controlling

– Meaning and Importance

– Relationship Between Planning and Controlling

– Steps in the Process of Control

– Techniques of Controlling

  1. Business Finance

– Meaning, Role, Objectives of Financial Management

– Financial Planning

– Capital Structure

– Fixed and Working Capital

  1. Financial Markets

– Concept of Financial Market

– Capital Market

– Distinction Between Capital Market and Money Market

– Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI)

  1. Marketing

– Meaning, Functions, Role

– Distinction Between Marketing and Selling

– Marketing Mix

  1. Consumer Protection

– Importance of Consumer Protection

– Consumer Rights

– Consumer Responsibilities

– Ways and Means of Consumer Protection

– Role of Consumer Organisations and NGOs

  1. Entrepreneurship Development

– Concept, Functions and Need.

– Entrepreneurship Characteristics and Competencies

– Process of Entrepreneurship Development

– Entrepreneurial Values, Attitudes and Motivation

The CBSE syllabus of Accountancy in Class 11-12 is designed with an objective to help learners

  • familiarise themselves with accounting as an information system
  • acquaint themselves with basic concepts of accounting and accounting standards
  • use accounting equation in processing business transactions
  • develop an understanding about recording of business transactions
  • familiarise themselves with the fundamentals of computerised system of accounting

The syllabus of Accountancy for Class 12 is mentioned below:

  1. Accounting Not-for-Profit Organisation

– Not-for-profit Organisation

– Receipts and Payments

– Preparation of Income and Expenditure Account and Balance Sheet

  1. Accounting for Partnership

– Nature of Partnership Firm

– Final Accounts of Partnership

  1. Reconstitution of Partnership

– Accounting for Revaluation of Assets and Liabilities

– Goodwill

– Admission of a Partner

– Retirement/Death of a Partner

  1. Dissolution of Partnership Firm

– Meaning, Settlement of Accounts

  1. Accounting for Share and Debenture Capital

– Share Capital

– Forfeiture of Shares

– Presentation of Shares and Debentures Capital in Company’s Balance Sheet

– Issue of Debenture

– Redemption of Debenture

  1. Analysis of Financial Statements

– Financial Statements of a Company

– Financial Analysis

– Tools for Financial Analysis

– Accounting Ratios

  1. Statements of Changes in Financial Position

– Cash Flow Statement

  1. Overview of Computerised Accounting System

– Concept and Types of Computerised Accounting System

– Features of a Computerised Accounting System

– Structure of a Computerised Accounting System

  1. Using Computerised Accounting System

– Steps in Installation of CAS, Preparation of Chart of Accounts, Codification and Hierarchy of Account Heads

– Data Entry, Data Validation and Data Verificationcc

– Security of CAS

  1. Accounting Using Database Management System (DBMS)

– Concepts of DBMS

– Objects in DBMS

– Creating Data Tables for Accounting

  1. Accounting Applications of Electronic Spreadsheet

– Concept of an Electronic Spreadsheet (ES)

– Features Offered by Electronic Spreadsheet

– Applications of Electronic Spreadsheet

Note: According to syllabus, there is a choice between 5, 6, 7 and 8, 9, 10, 11.

The syllabus of English for Classes 11-12 revolves around the following parameters:

English (Core):

  1. Participating in group discussions/interviews, make short oral presentations on given topics
  2. Identifying the central/main point and supporting details, etc
  3. Promoting advanced language skills with an aim to develop the skills of reasoning, drawing inferences, etc
  4. Translating texts from mother tongue(s) into English and vice versa
  5. Reading and comprehending extended texts
  6. Text-based writing
  7. Writing expository/argumentative essays
  8. Writing formal/informal letters

English (Elective):

  1. Providing extensive exposure to a variety of writings in English including some classics
  2. Expanding the learners’ vocabulary resources through the use of dictionary, thesaurus and encyclopaedia.
  3. Initiate the study of formal English grammar and elementary linguistics and phonetics
  4. Drawing inferences, supplying missing details, predicting outcomes, grasping the significance of particular details
  5. Inferring the meanings of words and phrases from the context
  6. Identifying different styles of writing like humorous, satirical, contemplative, ironical and burlesque

The syllabus of Chemistry for Class 12 is mentioned below:

  1. Solid State

– Classification of Solids

– Unit cell

– Calculation of Density of Unit Cell

– Electrical and Magnetic Properties

  1. Solutions

– Types of Solutions

– Concentration of Solutions of Solids in Liquids

– Solubility of Gases in Liquids

– Colligative Properties

  1. Electrochemistry

– Redox Reactions

– Dry Cell

– Lead Accumulator

– EMF of a Cell

– Erosion

  1. Chemical Kinetics

– Rate of a Reaction

– Order and Molecularity of a Reaction

– Rate Law and Specific Rate Constant

– Concept of Collision Theory

  1. Surface Chemistry

– Physisorption and Chemisorption

– Factors Affecting Adsorption of Gases on Solids

– Catalysis

– Colloidal State

– Lyophillic

– Properties of Colloids

– Tyndall Effect

– Brownian Movement

– Emulsions

  1. General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

– Principles and Methods of Extraction

– Principles of Extraction of Aluminium, Copper, Zinc and Iron

  1. p-Block Elements

– Group 15 Elements

– Group 16 Elements

– Group 17 Elements

– Group 18 Elements

  1. d and f Block Elements

– General Introduction

– Preparation and Properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4

– Lanthanoids

– Actinoids

  1. Coordination Compounds

– Introduction

– Magnetic Properties

– IUPAC Nomenclature of Mononuclear Coordination Compounds

– Isomerism

  1. Haloalkanes and Haloaranes

– Haloalkanes

– Haloaranes

  1. Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

– Alcohols

– Phenols

– Ethers

  1. Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

– Aldehydes and Ketones

– Carboxylic Acids

  1. Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen

– Amines

– Cyanides and Isocyanides

– Diazonium Salts

  1. Biomolecules

– Carbohydrates

– Proteins

– Vitamins

– Nucleic Acids

  1. Polymers

– Classification

– Some Important Polymers

  1. Chemistry in Everyday Life

– Chemicals in Medicines

– Chemicals in Food

– Cleansing Agent

The syllabus of Physics for Class 12 is mentioned below:

  1. Electrostatistics

– Electric Charges and Their Conservation

– Electric Field

– Electric Flux

– Electric Potential

– Conductors and Insulators

  1. Current Electricity

– Electric Current

– Internal Resistance of Cell

– Kirchhoff’s Laws and Simple Applications

– Potentiometer

  1. Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism

– Concept of Magnetic Field

– Oersted’s Experiment

– Force on a Current

– Force Between Two Parallel Currents

– Current Loop

– Electromagnets

  1. Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents

– Electromagnetic Induction

– Need for Displacement Current

– Alternating Currents

– AC Generator and Transformer

  1. Electromagnetic Waves

– Electromagnetic Waves and Their Characteristics

– Transverse Nature of Electromagnetic Waves

– Electromagnetic Spectrum

  1. Optics

– Reflection of Light

– Scattering of Light

– Optical Instruments

– Wave Optics

  1. Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation

– Photoelectric Effect

– Hertz and Lenard’s Observations

– Einstein’s Photoelectric Equation

– Matter Waves

– Davisson-Germer Experiment

  1. Atoms and Nuclei

– Alpha

– Rutherford’s Model of Atom

– Bohr Model

– Nucleus

– Radioactivity

– Radioactive Decay Law

– Mass-energy Relation

– Binding Energy per Nucleon

– Nuclear Fission and Fusion

  1. Electronic Devices

– Semiconductors

– Semiconductor Diode

– Diode as a Rectifies

– Logic Gates

– Transition as a Switch

  1. Communication Systems

– Elements of a Communication System

– Bandwidth of Signals

– Bandwidth of Transmission Medium

– Electromagnetic Waves

– Need for Modulation

– Production and Detection of an Amplitude-modulated Wave

The syllabus of Biology for Class 12 is mentioned below:

  1. Sexual Reproduction

– Pollination and Fertilisation in Flowering Plants

– Development of Seeds and Fruits

– Human Reproduction

– Production of Gametes

– Reproductive Health

  1. Genetics and Evolution

– Mendelian Inheritance

– Chromosome Theory

– Dominance, Co-dominance, Complementary Genes, Multiple Alleles

– Sex Determination in Human Beings

– Linkage and Crossing Over

– Inheritance Pattern of Haemophilia

– Blood Groups in Human Beings


– Gene Expression and Regulation

– Genome and Human Genome Project

– DNA Fingerprinting

– Evolution

  1. Biology and Human Welfare

– Animal Husbandry

– Concepts of Immunology, Vaccines

– Pathogens, Parasites

– Plant Breeding, Tissue Culture, Food Production

– Microbes

– Cancer and AIDS

– Adolescence and Drug/Alcohol Abuse

  1. Biotechnology and Its Applications

– Recombinant DNA Technology

– Applications in Health, Agriculture and Industry

– Genetically Modified (GM) Organisms

– Biosafety Issues

– Insulin and Bt Cotton

  1. Ecology and Environment

– Ecosystems

– Species, Population and Community

– Ecological Adaptations

– Centres of Diversity and Conservation of Biodiversity

– National Parks and Sanctuaries

– Environmental Issues

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